Women and men are different not only in their physical appearance but also in their psychological status. Women and men also differ in their personalities, the way of communication, dealing with various situations, their expression, and emotional level.
There are psychological theories that indicate a gender difference point known as alpha bias, and there are others that are gender-neutral presentation beta bias. Alpha bias stated that men and women are different from each other, and in beta bias the difference between men and women is negligible.
In the case of poor women, the financial requirement compels them to seek employment outside their homes. The work that is feasible to them is; however, lower in pay than those presented to men results in exploitation.
Slowly, there has been a conversion in the availability of work or jobs to more reputed company jobs and there is more qualification required. Thus, although, larger sections of women from all sociodemographic statuses are engaged outside the home; this neither gives any relief to them from their household work nor does this convert their social status effectively.
For decades, the differences between males and females have been socially accepted and destructed through an aspect of genderism in which the male is considered to be superior and women are considered to be inferior comparatively.
Mental health is responsible for individuals to lead a normal life and possess a balance between personal and professional life also social life. On the other side, mental disease or mental disorder is an involuntary psychological or behavioural condition that occurs in an individual and is a factor to create disease or disorder which is unexpected as part of normal human development or social activity.
Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and unspecified psychological disorders are 2–3 times more common in females than in men; whereas habit or substance addiction and psychopathic personality disorders are more likely to see in men.
The disease of depression is close to 41.9% of the disability from neuropsychiatric diseases between women as compared to 29.3% in men
• Major mental health issues of the aged are depression and dementias. The majority are female.
• Approximately 80% of the 50 million population affected by violent fights, civil disputes, disasters, and disorganization are female and kids.
• Lifelong probability range of violence against females ranges between 16% to 50%
• Minimum one in five women undergo sexual abuse or attempted rape in their lifetime.
Gender inequality can be seen especially in the rates of common mental disorders (CMDs)-depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic problems wherein women's predominancy have been seen.
Unipolar depression, which is expected to be the second major factor of global disability burden by 2020, is two times more common in women.
As across the globe, research in India has shown that depression and anxiety are majorly related to women besides poverty. Hormonal issues related to the reproductive cycle may play a role in women's increased experience of depression.
As per the Indian government calculation, among women as compared to men are as follows: Dowry disputes (2.9% versus 0.2%); love affairs (15.4% versus 10.9%); illegitimate pregnancies (10.3 versus 8.2); and fights with relatives/spouse or parents-in-law (10.3% versus 8.2%).
The common reason for taking life in India are disturbed interpersonal relationships which are followed by psychiatric disease and physical disorders. The spousal fight has been seen to be effectively related as an independent risk factor for attempted suicide in females.
As per the eye-opener United Nations report, approximately two-thirds of married females in India were the target of domestic violence and one incident of violence converted into women losing 7 working days in the country. Furthermore, as many as 70% of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 years are the target of beating, sexual abuse.
Sexual pressure was reported by 30% of the 146 women in Indian research. The most commonly reported case was sexual intercourse involving threatened or actual physical abuse (reported by 14% of women), and the most commonly featured offender was the woman's husband or intimate partner (15%), or a person in a state of power in their community (10%).
Commonly found mental health issues felt by abused women include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, insomnia, and alcohol use disease, as well as a range of psychosomatic issues. Hammered women are much more likely to receive psychiatric treatment and are much more likely to strive suicide than nonbattered women.
Mental, emotional and behavioural changes have been seen to be accompanied by the menstrual cycle since previous/ancient times. The symptoms such as irritability, restlessness, anxiety, tension, headache, sleep apnoea, mood swing, dysphoria, and the lack of concentration occur more commonly during the premenstrual and menstrual phase.
Mental issues commonly occur during the period of late pregnancy and in the postpartum period.
Menopause is a time of conversion for females not only in their endocrine and reproductive systems but also in their social and psychological environment.
Women are more likely to contribute their drinking to a traumatic event, women who take alcohol or sedatives are most probably to experience sexual or physical misbehaviour than other women.
A strong opposite connection is exhibited between social level and physical and mental health results. Hence, the effect of the biological criticism is enhanced by the social disadvantages that women have.
The mentally distorted woman may be socially ostracized and need protection by her husband and her own family.
Gender encourages the discrepancy between stipulation and application. This low presence is partly defined by the lack of availability of resources for women in hospital settings. The mental hospitals present to cater primarily to men in distress, and there is gender-based discrimination in the presentation of beds. The male: female percentage for the allocation of beds in government mental hospitals with only service was 73%:27%, while those with service, study, and training was 66%:34%.
A woman's health must associate mental and physical health across the life period and should reach beyond the constricted thinking of reproductive and maternal health, which is normally the centre of our policies.
The most basic requirement is the woman's education. Being qualified provides consciousness of rights and powers, the capability to fight abuse and incorrect behaviour.
• Most of the females had a good number of conceiving which may or may not have been wished.
• In the new year, the normal life expectancy for American women is 82 years of age, and it is constantly increasing.
• Gynaecology is the main department of medical science that deals with women's health issues.
There is an incredible study available to women not only on this kind of issue as eating disorders, stress, alcoholism, addictions, and depression but also on basic headings like nutrition, cardiovascular health and physical activity.
Smoking is dangerous to anyone's health, also the health of those who are near to them. Women who are smoking are at risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other health issues.
Drinking alcohol in excess is dangerous for health.
Vaginosis (bacterial) is a mild infection affecting the vagina. This disease or infection is caused due to disturbance in normal flora in the development of the microorganism that is normally populated and healthy for the organ (vagina).
The female reproductive system exhibits a major role throughout the life of a woman, it takes special consideration.
Because of the complexity of the reproductive system, she can experience many problems ranging from yeast infections of the vagina to fibroids of the uterus or cysts of the ovary.
In the U.S., a common major surgery performed on women who are not pregnant is a hysterectomy. A hysterectomy, the surgical removal of the uterus, ends menstruation and a woman's innate ability to become pregnant.
After menopause, a woman's body produces a smaller number of female hormones like estrogen and progesterone. The symptoms after menopause are the causes of different troublesome for women.
Women are more commonly depicted as being under the effect of their hormones, as under the influence of hormonal surge.
After menopause, there is a lack of production of female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Symptoms of menopausal can be disturbing for a day-to-day activity for women. Generally, doctors prescribe hormone replacement therapy (HT, HRT) to control menopausal symptoms, but this therapy should be advised to give only for a short duration because of higher chances or probability of heart attacks and there can be an increased risk of breast cancer.
Hormonal problems in women are not only limited to sex hormones. There are other hormonal issues like thyroid disease (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism), also very common in women.
Some diseases are normally found more in women.
• Gallstones are three to four times more common in women.
• irritable bowel syndrome and urinary tract infections are more common in females.
• Urinary tract infections, bladder infections and kidney infections (pyelonephritis) predominantly affect women.
• Kidney disease is the main reason for hypertension. And, after age 50, HTN is more commonly seen in women as compared to men.
• Breast cancer is the second major cause of cancer in women also a very common cause of death.
Ovarian cancer is difficult to diagnose in its initial stage and is normally referred to as the Silent Killer.
Till the age of 40-45, women have the natural activity of the menstrual period., where there is regular blood discharge between every 25 to 30 days in non-pregnant women before menopause.
Physical activity can enhance sexual activity, whereas any disease or syndrome which is chronic like depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes can diminish the activity. Some substances like tranquillizers, alcohol also can diminish the same.
Birth control is the responsibility of both partners.
Fertility is the ability to conceive a baby. In the U.S., 94% of women use some kind of birth control to prevent unwanted pregnancies.
She should be aware of which method is safe for her against sexually transmitted diseases like HIV and AIDS.
During this period a woman needs to go through all ups and downs of physical and mental level. For example:
• She needs to take care and be aware of depression, epilepsy, thyroid disease, asthma and diabetes.
• If she smokes then immediately, she needs to stop because it can cause stillbirth.
• She also needs to take care of about danger from drinking alcohol.
• She should be aware of which medication is safe during pregnancy or consult with the doctor.
• Should be updated with all kinds of prenatal tests.
• At the final stage she should be ready and planned with the things for delivery of the baby.
During motherhood, a woman is accountable for her health also for her family.
Till today for the protection and nurture of the children, the mother is considered to be responsible more than the other family members.
Menopause is referred to as "The turning point in women’s life" this is the time when she can no longer able to conceive. Symptoms of menopause may include:
Before the 20th century, women didn’t live long because of the quality of life after stopping menses. Today women live more years after their menopause.
A woman’s health is her capital. – Harriet Beecher Stowe