Anaemia is a medical condition in which a person lacks sufficient healthy red blood cells (RBC) to transfer enough oxygen to the body's tissues. Having anaemia can make a person feel weary and weak. There are many kinds of anaemia, each with different causes. Anaemia can be short-lived or long-term and can vary from mild to severe. In most instances, anaemia has more than one cause. It is always better to consult a healthcare provider if one has suspicions of anaemia, as it could be a warning of serious illness.
Anemia can be of many types, like:
- Aplastic Anemia
- Iron deficiency anaemia
- Sickle cell anaemia
- Vitamin deficiency anaemia
Anaemia signs and symptoms differ depending on the cause and severity. Based on the grounds of anaemia, some people might have zero symptoms.
Signs and symptoms, if they do occur, may involve:
- Pale or yellowish skin
- Irregular heartbeats
- Breathing problems
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Chest ache
- Cold hands and feet
At first, anaemia may be mild that might go unnoticeable. But as anaemia worsens, the symptoms could worsen. Check with your healthcare provider if you encounter any or some of these symptoms.
Also, fatigue has many causes besides Anemia, so it is not right to assume that if you're weary, you are anaemic. For some people, if the haemoglobin count is low while donating blood, it might indicate they are anaemic. Consult your healthcare provider if you find out that you cannot donate because of a low haemoglobin count.
Anaemia can be present at birth (congenital), or it might be a condition you develop (acquired). Acquired can happen if:
- Your body doesn't produce sufficient
- Bleeding causes you to lose RBCs more quickly than they can be replaced
- Your body destroys
Different types of Anemia have different causes. They include:
- Iron deficiency anaemia. This most common type is caused by a shortage of iron in the
- Vitamin deficiency anaemia. Your body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to make enough healthy RBCs. A diet lacking in these and other key nutrients can cause Anemia.
- Anaemia of inflammation. Diseases such as cancer, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, and other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases can conflict with the making of
- Aplastic Anemia. This rare, life-threatening Anemia occurs when your body doesn't produce enough RBCs. Causes could be some types of infections, specific medications, autoimmune diseases and toxic chemicals
- Association with bone marrow disease. A variety of diseases, such as leukaemia and myelofibrosis, can cause Anemia by affecting blood production in your bone
- Hemolytic anemia. This group of anemia develops when RBC destruction is faster than bone marrow replacement. It can either be inherited, or can be developed later in
- Sickle cell anaemia. This is caused by a defective haemoglobin form that forces RBCs to assume an abnormal crescent shape. These irregular blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of RBCs. It could be inherited and serious.
Risk factors causing anemia are:
- A diet devoid of certain vitamins and
- Heavy Menstruation, or menopause
- Being pregnant and not taking multivitamins with folic acid and
- Chronic conditions. If you have cancer, kidney failure or another chronic condition, you could be at risk of Anemia or a chronic
- Other factors. A history of particular infections, blood diseases and autoimmune disorders, alcoholism, exposure to toxic chemicals, and some medications can affect RBC
- People over 65 years are at an increased
If delayed or untreated, Anemia can cause several health problems like:
Many types of Anemia can't be prevented. But you can avoid iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin deficiency anemia by eating a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and minerals, including iron, folate, vitamin-b12 and vitamin c.
If you're concerned about getting enough vitamins and minerals from food, ask your healthcare provider whether a multivitamin might help.
Treatments for anaemia are based on the cause, varying from supplements to getting treated via medical procedures. One might prevent and avoid some types of anaemia by consuming a healthy, varied diet.
- Approximately 68.4% of children and 66.4% of women suffered from anaemia in India in 2019. The numbers are
- Anemia is comparatively lower in Lakshadweep, Kerala, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland, and higher in Ladakh, Gujarat, J&K, and West Bengal, among
- For children, haemoglobin of fewer than 11 grams per decilitre (g/dl) indicates anaemia. For non-pregnant women less than 12 g/dl, and pregnant women, 11g/dl, and for men, less than 13 g/dl.
PGC Resolution: To adopt measures to secure and supplement for reducing the risk of anaemia and increase haemoglobin levels across people of all age groups.