Medical Awareness >>   Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that impacts how people interact with others, communicate, understand, and act. Whereas autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is declared as a “developmental disorder” because symptoms normally appear in the first two years of life.

In Autism spectrum disorder people often suffers:


  • Difficulty with communication and interaction with other people
  • Remarkably decreased interests and repetitive behaviours
  • Symptoms that affect their ability to perform in school, professional, and in other areas of life


Autism is called a “spectrum” disorder because there is a huge variety in the type and severity of symptoms people persist.

People of all genders, races, and socioeconomic statuses, can be diagnosed with ASD. Whereas Autism Spectrum Disorder can persist as a lifelong disorder, treatments and management can enhance a person’s symptoms and daily life activity. 

Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder

People with Autism Spectrum Disorder have difficulty with social communication and interaction, restricted interests, and repetition of behaviours. There are few examples of commonly found behaviours in people diagnosed with ASD. Not all people with ASD will have all behaviours, but most of them will have many of the behaviours given below.

Social communication/expression includes:


  • Making very little eye contact
  • Normally not to look at or listen to people who are interacting
  • Infrequently sharing interest, emotion, or feeling of happiness of materials or activities (including by inconsistent pointing at or showing things to others)
  • No response or being slow to respond to one’s name.
  • Having difficulties with the back and forth of conversation
  • Generally talking at length about a favourite subject without noticing that others are not interested to listen and without giving others a chance to speak


Restrictive/repetitive behaviours include:


  • Repeating certain behaviours or having unusual behaviours, such as repeating words or phrases (a behaviour called echolalia)
  • Having a lasting intense interest in specific topics, such as numbers, details, or facts
  • Showing overly focused interests, such as with moving objects or parts of objects
  • Becoming upset by slight changes in a routine.
  • Being over sensitive or less sensitive than other people to sensory input, such as light, sound, clothing, or temperature


People with Autism Spectrum Disorder may also experience sleep problems and irritability.

People on the autism spectrum also may have many strengths, which includes:


  • Being able to learn things in detail and remember information for long periods of time
  • Being strong visual and auditory learners
  • Excelling in math, science, music, or art


Causative or predisposing factors

Scientists don’t know the chief causes of ASD, but studies suggest that a person’s genes and their environment are together are liable to impact development in ways that lead to ASD. Some factors that are associated with a high risk of developing ASD include:


  • Having a sibling with ASD
  • Having older parents
  • Having certain genetic conditions (such as Down syndrome or Fragile X syndrome)
  • Having a very low birth weight


Diagnosing ASD

Health care providers diagnose ASD by analysing a person’s behaviour and development. ASD can normally be diagnosed by the age of two. It is crucial to seek an evaluation as early as possible. The earlier ASD is diagnosed, the sooner treatments and services can begin.

The diagnostic evaluation is likely to include:


  • Medical and neurological examinations
  • Assessment of the child’s cognitive abilities
  • Assessment of the child’s language abilities
  • Observation of the child’s behaviour
  • An in-depth conversation with the child’s caregivers about the child’s behaviour and development
  • Assessment of age-appropriate skills needed to complete daily activities independently, such as eating, dressing, and toileting


Because ASD is a complex disorder that sometimes occurs with other illnesses or learning disorders, the comprehensive evaluation may include:


  • Blood tests
  • Hearing test


The outcome of the evaluation may result in a formal diagnosis and recommendations for treatment.


  • Restricted interests


The evaluation also may include a conversation with caregivers or other family members to learn about the person’s early developmental history, which can help ensure an accurate diagnosis.

Treatments and Therapies

Management for ASD should begin as early as possible after its diagnosis. Early treatment for ASD is very important as appropriate treatment and care can decrease individuals’ problems and also help them to learn new skills and develop their strengths.

People with ASD may face a wide range of challenges, which means that there is no single best treatment for ASD. Working along with a health care provider is a crucial aspect of finding the right amalgamation of treatment and services.


A health care provider may suggest or prescribe medication to treat particular symptoms. With medication, a person with ASD may have fewer issues with:


  • Irritability
  • Aggression
  • Repetitive behaviour
  • Hyperactivity
  • Attention problems
  • Anxiety and depression


Behavioural, psychological, and educational support

People with ASD may be referred to a health care provider who has done specialization in serving behavioural, psychological, educational, or skill-building interventions. These programs are typically highly designed and effective, and they may involve caregivers, siblings, and other family members. These programs may help and support people with ASD:


  • Learn social, communication, and language skills
  • Reduce behaviours that interfere with day-to-day activity
  • Increase or develop upon strengths
  • Learn life skills that are mandatory for living independently


Other areas to approach

Many services, health programs, and other resources are available to help and support people diagnosed with ASD. Here are some points for recognising these additional services:


  • Contact your health care provider, local health department, school, or autism advocacy group to learn and understand special programs or local resources.
  • Find an autism support group. Sharing information and experiences and knowledge that can help people with ASD and their families to learn about treatment options and ASD-related programs.
  • Record conversations and discussion points with health care providers and teachers. This knowledge supports when it’s time to confirm which programs and services are most suitable.
  • Keep records or copies of health care reports and evaluations. This information may support people with ASD to qualify for special programs.



“Autism is like a rainbow. It has a bright side and a darker side. But every shade is important and beautiful.” — Rosie Tennant Doran


Come together and begin a new journey with “Project Global Cure” to support and elevate the people who are living with Autism, “It is different not less.”