Medical Awareness >>   Cancer



Cancer is one of the common ailments in the world today. Hearing that someone has cancer can be very frightening and stressful. Be aware of its diagnosis recovery processes - this can empower you and the others around you to take control of your health.

Cancer is a condition where the cells in a particular body part grow and reproduce in an out-of-control way. These cancerous cells can invade and destroy the surrounding healthy tissues and organs.

Cancer usually begins in one body part before spreading to other areas (metastasis). More than 200 different types of cancer exist worldwide, and each of them is diagnosed and treated in a particular way. 

Common Types of Cancer

Cancer associated with 






Rectal and colon





Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma



Cancer Stages

The cancer stage is determined based on the tests to determine the extent and severity of cancer. The number assigned to diagnosis determines the stage of your cancer.

Most cancers have four stages. The specific stage is determined by a few different factors, including the size and location of the tumour:

Stage 1: Cancer is localized to a small region and is not spread to lymph nodes or other organs or tissues.

Stage 2: Growth of cancer, but hasn't spread.

Stage 3: Cancer has grown larger and could spread to lymph nodes or other tissues.

Stage 4: Cancer has advanced to other organs or parts of the body. This phase is also known as metastatic cancer or advanced cancer.

Though stages 1 through 4 are the most common, stage zero is also. This earliest phase describes cancer that is still localized to the area it started. Cancers still in stage zero are usually easily treatable and are considered pre-cancerous by most healthcare providers.


Sometimes an early sign of cancer may be the unexplained changes to the body's normal processes or unusual symptoms. Look out for these visible signs:

  • a lump that suddenly appears anywhere on the body
  • unexplained bleeding
  • variations in the bowel habits

In most cases, the symptoms are not related to cancer, usually caused by some other, non-cancerous health conditions.


There are various factors that contribute to the development of cancer in the body. Smoking and usage of tobacco products is one of the main reasons for:

  • Lung cancer
  • Oral cancer
  • Laryngeal cancer
  • Oesophagal cancer

Other causes of cancer include:

  • An unhealthy lifestyle. Consuming high-fat or high-sugar foods can increase your risk for many types of cancer. You're also more vulnerable to disease if you don't get enough physical activity in a day.
  • A toxic environment. Exposure to toxins in your environment like asbestos, pesticides and radon, can eventually cause cancer.
  • Radiation exposure. Ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation) from the sun significantly increases the risk for skin cancer. Over-exposure to radiation treatment can also increase the risk for cancer.
  • Hormone therapy. Women taking hormone replacement therapy may have an increased risk for breast cancer and endometrial cancer.


To treat your cancer, the location of the tumor is vital. Other than this, the stage (whether it has spread) and whether you are strong enough to handle the treatment is determined. A comprehensive examination is performed on the patient and symptoms are checked. Other tests, including the below may be advised:

  • Blood tests.
  • Urine tests.
  • X-rays.
  • CT (computed tomography) scans.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Ultrasonography.
  • Biopsy.


Once the medical team has given a diagnosis, a personalized treatment plan is designed based on their findings. Cancer treatment may include:

  • Chemotherapy. One of the most common cancer treatments is chemotherapy that uses powerful drugs to eliminate cancer cells. This may be administered in the form of an IV or in pill form.
  • Radiation therapy. This treatment destroys cancer cells with the help of high radiation dosages. In some instances, radiation may be given simultaneously as chemotherapy.
  • Surgery. In some cases, your surgeon can surgically remove the tumour.
  • Hormone therapy. There are times when hormones can block other cancer-causing hormones. For instance, men with prostate cancer might be administered hormones to keep testosterone (which plays a major role in prostate cancer) at bay.
  • Biological response modifier therapy. This type of treatment stimulates the immune system and makes it perform more efficiently. It does this by modifying the body's natural processes.
  • Immunotherapy. Also called as biological therapy, immunotherapy treats disease by using the power of the body's immune system. It targets cancer cells while leaving healthy cells untouched.
  • Bone marrow transplant. Sometimes known as stem cell transplantation, this treatment replaces damaged stem cells with the healthy ones. Before transplantation, one must undergo chemotherapy to prepare the body for the process.

Fact Check:

  • One in two persons develops some form of cancer during their life.
  • More than 100 different kinds of cancer exists in the world today.
  • Early detection is key with ovarian cancer
  • It is told thar the 5-year survival rate for hodgkin lymphoma is about 87%.
  • Immunotherapy is known world-wide now to treat more than a dozen types of cancer.
  • Once a person turns 50, they are recommend a colorectal screening
  • Smoking is the biggest risk factor for lung cancer and causes 80-90% of deaths due to lung cancer.

PGC Resolution: To promote healthy lifestyles to help cancer prevention. We aim to conduct more research on cancer and its causes to find more answers and advance treatments. Life-saving policy changes to provide every possible support to the patients touched by cancer.