Medical Awareness >>   Diabetes



Diabetes is a chronic disease that normally occurs when your blood sugar level reaches a higher level than normal.  No matter what kind or type diabetes occurs, it ultimately leads to high blood sugar levels. High blood glucose can lead to health problems related to nerves, kidney, heart and other organs over time.

The main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, prediabetes and gestational diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. Around 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
  • Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
  • Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.

A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. It’s a different condition in which your kidneys remove too much fluid from your body.

Each type of diabetes has unique symptoms, causes, and treatments. 


Diabetes symptoms are caused by rising blood sugar. The general symptoms include:

  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • extreme fatigue
  • sores that don’t heal

Symptoms in men

In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), and poor muscle strength.

Symptoms in women

Women with diabetes can also have symptoms such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.

Type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include:


  • extreme hunger
  • increased thirst
  • unintentional weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness
  • It may also result in mood changes.


Type 2 diabetes

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include:


  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • increased urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness
  • sores that are slow to heal
  • It may also cause recurring infections. This is because elevated glucose levels make it harder for the body to heal.


Gestational diabetes

Most women with gestational diabetes don’t have any symptoms. The condition is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation.

In rare cases, a woman with gestational diabetes will also experience increased thirst or urination.

The bottom line

Diabetes symptoms can be so mild that they’re hard to spot at first. Learn which signs should prompt a trip to the doctor.


For many years, the diagnosis of diabetes has been dependent on the glucose criteria. The diagnosis procedure was revised in 1977 by the first expert committee of diabetes mellitus.

The diagnostic endpoint of more than 126mg/dl for fasting plasma glucose and the long-standing diagnostic 2-hour plasma glucose for more than 200mg/dl. A1C is used as a marker for chronic glycemia, showing an average blood glucose level over a 2-3 month time period.

Management of diabetes

According to the type of diabetes, oral medication, blood sugar monitoring, and insulin therapy may show an important role in the treatment of Diabetes. Having a healthy diet with good physical activity also plays a major role in the management of diabetes.

Management of different types of Diabetes.

The best factor to maintain and treat diabetes is to maintain good health and weight.


  • Healthy diet which includes all kinds of essential proteins, vitamins, carbs, fats and other minerals.
  • Exercise or physical activity, it is very important to be fil and healthy through physical activity. Obesity plays a major role in the development of diabetes.


Management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Management of type 1 diabetes includes insulin injection, that’s why it is also known as insulin dependent diabetes also it is mandatory to have regular check-up of blood sugar level

Management of type 2 diabetes basically includes a healthy lifestyle also maintaining blood sugar level, apart from this the medication of diabetes, insulin or both can be required as per the condition of disease.

Complications of Diabetes

Pathogenesis of complications of diabetes.

It has been proven that the mechanism of diabetic pathogenesis of its complication shows oxidative stress because of the production of ROS that is reactive oxygen species, and flaws in the insulin signal transduction journey where ceramide which is s bioactive sphingolipid, have a specific inhibitory effect.

New findings: Diagnosis of diabetes – undiagnosed by A1c test

Whenever there is a need to test or examine the diabetes, A1c test has been always considered a Gold slandered. Especially the high level of blood glucose with 5.7% level of A1c and corresponds to approximately blood glucose that is 117 mg/dl. The diagnostic criteria for pre-diabetes is 5.7 and 6.4% of A1c, higher then this shows the abnormal high blood glucose level or directing to Diabetes.

Evidently, new research showed at the ENDO 2019 conference which has been suggested that the A1c examination is very much lacking than previously evident when it comes to exact diagnosis of diabetes.

Also, the research indicated that the A1c examination misclassified

In fact, the research showed that the A1c test misfiled more than 70% of diabetes cases. 

Exceptionally, the research showed that approximately 73% of diabetes cases have not been diagnosed by A1c examination, even though they have been diagnosed through the OGTT. The research also indicated some race-specific differences in the diagnostic accuracy.


As per the American Diabetes Association more than 20% of Americans have been undiagnosed with diabetes.

According to the American Diabetes Association, over 20% of Americans with diabetes are undiagnosed. This is already astonishing data, and this new research indicates that the routine sole use of the A1c examination for diagnosis of diabetes may reveal that this number is genuinely much higher than previously seen.

As diabetes cases continue to grow, it is always mandatory to enhance awareness and consciousness, as well as advancement in standard procedures for exact and timely diagnosis as well as to develop the most efficient prevention and treatment planning.