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First Aid

First aid introduction-

First aid is the initial and urgent care provided to anyone who has a small or significant disease or injury, with the goal of preserving life, preventing the condition from getting worse, or fostering recovery. It entails both the full treatment of minor conditions, such as putting a plaster on a cut, as well as the initial intervention in a critical situation before professional medical care is available, such as giving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while waiting for an ambulance. 10 September is celebrated as World First Aid Day every year. First aid includes three types-

  • Mental health first aid- covers mental health treatment
  • Psychological first aid- covers people who are at risk of developing PTSD(post-traumatic stress disorder)
  • Conflict first aid- focused on preservation and recovery of an individual’s social well-being and relationship well-being


Aims and objectives of first aid-

3 P’s – preserve, prevent and promote

  • Preserve life
  • Prevent illness or injury from becoming worse
  • Promote recovery


Role of First aider-

  • Someone who has been trained or examined in skills of first aid
  • When you are trained, you feel apprehensive when dealing with real situation
  • Being first aider, you can cope up with the unexpected


Qualities of good first aider-

  • Sympathetic
  • Dexterous
  • Explicit
  • Discrimination
  • Perseverance
  • Tactful
  • Recourses
  • Cheerful
  • Gentle
  • Patient
  • Calm
  • Willing to offer assistance whenever necessary


Basic first aid-

If someone is unconscious or unresponsive, the basic principle to follow is-

A: Airway B: Breathing C: Circulation

  • If someone is not breathing, clear the airway.
  • On clearing airway if a person still not breathes, provide rescue breathing
  • Perform chest compressions to keep person’s blood circulating
  • If the person is breathing but not responsive, check the pulse
  • If heart is stopped, provide chest compressions

D and E are also covered in some first aid courses:

D could stand for an automated external defibrillator, fatal bleeding, or disability assessment (AED). A gadget called an AED shocks the heart into restarting its beat.

E stands for examining the person for symptoms of blood, allergies, injuries, or other issues after confirming that they are breathing and their heart is beating.

One of the most crucial emergency medical techniques a person may know is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A person may pass away if their heart stops beating. CPR and/or the use of an AED may be able to preserve a person's life when they are experiencing cardiac arrest. Many public spaces and companies have AEDs on hand. Even if you have no prior experience, these gadgets are designed to be simple to use.

Some common conditions where first aid is given or needed-

  • First aid bandage for wounds
  • First aid given for burns
  • First aid CPR
  • First aid for bee sting
  • First aid for nose bleed
  • First aid for heat stroke
  • First aid for heart attack
  • First aid kit for babies


Basic First aid kit includes –

  • Adhesive bandages of assorted sizes
  • Roller bandages of assorted sizes
  • Absorbent compress dressings
  • Sterile gauze pads
  • Adhesive cloth tape
  • Triangular bandages
  • Antiseptic wipes
  • Aspirin
  • Paracetamol
  • Antibiotic ointment
  • Hydrocortisone cream
  • Calamine lotion
  • Nitryl or vinyl gloves
  • Safety pins
  • Scissors
  • Tweezers 
  • Thermometers
  • Breathing barrier
  • Instant cold pack
  • Blanket
  • First aid manual


First aid education is a must for every nurse and doctor. Every country has a different first aid manual. Every country’s guidelines are different. But emergency situations mostly are the same at every place. Emergency situations vary greatly but there are four steps that always apply at every place-


  • Make the area safe
  • Evaluate the injured person’s condition safe
  • Seek help
  • Give first aid


Importance of first aid education-

  • Helps to save lives
  • Allows the rescuer to provide comfort to victim
  • Gives first aid tools to prevent situation from getting worse
  • Creates confidence to care
  • Encourages healthy and safe living

Golden rules of first aid-

  • Doing first things quickly without panic
  • Give artificial respiration on stoppage of breathing
  • Stop any bleeds
  • Guard against shock 
  • Move the casualty the minimum 
  • Reassure the casualty and those around not to have anxiety
  • Do not people to gather around the scene too much 
  • Do not remove clothes unnecessarily
  • Arrange the removal of casualty to care of doctor or hospital at earliest


Red Cross Society of India-

The Red Cross Society of India was founded in 1920. An independent nonprofit dedicated to preserving human life and health, the Indian Red Cross Society is established in India. It adheres to the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and is a member of that movement. It was started by Claude Hill, and it has offices in Punjab and New Delhi. There are numerous branches. It is an aid and humanitarian organization. The Indian Red Cross is a voluntary humanitarian organization with over 1100 chapters spread across the nation. It offers assistance in times of emergencies and disasters and promotes health and care for the weak and vulnerable communities.

Its mission is to alleviate human suffering, protect life and health, and uphold human dignity, especially during armed conflicts and other emergencies. It is present in every country and supported by millions of volunteers.


Activities of Red Cross Society of India-

  • Youth activities
  • Promoting humanitarian values
  • Disaster preparedness and response
  • Health training
  • Blood bank
  • HIV, TB…health projects
  • Maternity and child welfare
  • Nursing
  • Elderly care
  • IRCS certified first medical responders


PGC Resolution-

  • Provide first aid to injured people.
  • Promote recovery of people suffering from medical disabilities.
  • Provide first aid in health camps and in health centers.
  • Spread awareness about the importance of first aid.
First Aid