Medical Awareness >>   Hypothyroidism And Hyperthyroidism

Hypothyroidism And Hyperthyroidism

The thyroid gland is an organ that produces hormones and is butterfly-shaped. the hormones released by the thyroid gland are, 

Triiodothyronine (T3) and 

Thyroxine (T4), 

These hormones regulate our metabolism, and function normally in our heart, brain and other organs, also have a big role in every part of tissue or organs in our system.

The thyroid is managed by the pituitary gland which is situated in the brain. The pituitary gland produces a hormone which is known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which indicates the thyroid gland forms T3 and T4. Whenever there is any damage or malfunction in the gland or pituitary gland, there will be an imbalance in the formation and release of thyroid hormone. It can release in large quantities or too low quantities from the requirement. And it can affect all the systems of the body. 

When you have a less active thyroid gland and there is the formation of less thyroid hormone, then the condition is known as hypothyroidism. On another side, when you have an overproduction of thyroid hormone the condition or disease is known as hyperthyroidism. 

Causative factors

Causative factor for Hypothyroidism


  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Surgical excision
  • Radiation therapy
  • Congenital issues
  • Thyroiditis
  • special kind of medicine 
  • Abnormal iodine levels
  • Pituitary gland injury
  • Rare disorders



Causative factor for Hyperthyroidism


  • Autoimmune disorder
  • Nodules
  • Thyroiditis (temporary)
  • Overmedication
  • Abnormal iodine levels



Causes of Hypothyroidism 



  • Autoimmune disorder: The autoimmune disease includes Hashimoto's disease and atrophic thyroiditis. They're the most common causes of a less active or hypoactive thyroid gland.
  • Surgical excision: In some cases, there will be complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland as a part of treatment for thyroid cancer, thyroid nodules, or Graves disease.
  • Radiation therapy: In this therapy or management for specific kind of cancers, Graves disorder, and thyroid gland nodules can injure the thyroid gland and disturbs its normal role.
  • Congenital issues: It is very rare when a baby is born with a partial or missing thyroid gland or other abnormalities that disturbs the thyroid gland function.
  • Thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid gland leads to viral infection or atrophic thyroiditis.
  • Specific medications: In an individual where a genetic susceptibility, medicine that may initiate or exaggerate hypothyroidism include Cordarone or Pacerone (amiodarone), Eskalith or Lithobid (lithium), Intron A or Roferon-A (interferon α), Proleukin (aldesleukin or interleukin-2), and checkpoint inhibitors like Yervoy (ipilimumab).
  • Abnormal level of iodine: Iodine is a critical element of thyroid hormones, hence if your body doesn't get enough amount from the foods you eat, it is difficult to keep thyroid hormones in balance.
  • Destruction of the pituitary gland: if the pituitary gland gets injured by a tumour, radiation therapy, or surgery, the gland's command over the thyroid gland or thyroid hormone secretion may be disturbed and results in a lack of thyroid hormones.
  • Rare diseases: These involve amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, and hemochromatosis. Every disease deposit substance in the thyroid gland that shouldn't be there and can disturb its normal function.


Hyperthyroidism Causes

the overactive thyroid gland has fewer potential reasons. It may transfer to families. Other causative factors include:


  • Autoimmune disease: Graves disease is the reason for more than 70% of overactive thyroid gland cases. injury to the thyroid gland results from antibodies that chronically initiate or activate the thyroid gland and results in hormone overproduction.
  • Nodules: Abnormal development of thyroid gland tissues can result in an excess amount of hormone secretion.
  • Thyroiditis: When thyroiditis first appears, it can lead to the thyroid gland releasing all the hormones it has formed, resulting in partial/temporary hyperthyroidism. After that, levels fall down into the hypothyroid range.
  • Overmedication: If you consume too much thyroid hormone medication for hypothyroidism, it can result in hyperthyroidism.
  • Abnormal level of iodine: If there is a lack of iodine and all of a sudden increase in your iodine intake, you may develop temporary hyperthyroidism during that time your body adjusts to the change.


Importance of Iodine

Iodine is a substance that your body can't form on its own, that’s why you depend on food to get enough of it. Thyroid gland cells absorb iodine from the bloodstream and utilize it for the formation of T3 and T4. Less amount of iodine levels can result in hypothyroidism and an excess amount of iodine in blood results in hyperthyroidism.

Importance of Iodine in Thyroid Health


Symptoms of Hypothyroidism


  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Feeling colder
  • Constipation
  • Hair loss
  • reduce sweating
  • Heavy and irregular periods
  • Slow heart rate
  • fragile nails
  • Irritability and depression
  • Puffy face
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Insomnia



Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism


  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss or gain
  • The feeling of more warm
  • Diarrhoea
  • Hair loss
  • More sweating
  • Light and short periods
  • Increased heart rate
  • Nail thickening, flaking
  • Anxiety and nervousness
  • Bulging or puffy eyes
  • Muscle weakness
  • Insomnia





Hypothyroidism Complications


  • Goitre
  • Pregnancy problems
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Anaemia
  • High level of blood cholesterol
  • Muscle disorder
  • Myxoedema coma


Hyperthyroidism Complications


  • Goitre
  • Pregnancy issues
  • Neonatal hyperthyroidism
  • Osteoporosis
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Thyroid storm





Hypothyroidism Treatments


  • Thyroxine (T4) replacement
  • Sometimes, added T3 replacement


Hyperthyroidism Treatments


  • Antithyroid drugs
  • Radioactive iodine
  • Beta-blocker drugs
  • Surgical removal of the thyroid


Radioactive iodine, taken by mouth, injure or damage the gland thyroid cells, resulting in a smaller number of cells for the production of thyroid hormones and shrinking of nodules. 

If the first treatment isn't advantageous enough, the second stage of course may be given. Sometimes this treatment leads to hypothyroidism, which is then corrected with the replacement thyroid hormones.

Treatment with radioactive iodine is very common. There is a thinking that radiation therapy can lead to malignancy, but the treatment hasn't been associated with cancer.

Beta-blockers won't decrease your thyroid hormone, but they can inhibit the actions of the hormones and reduce symptoms. These medications include:


  • Inderal (propranolol)
  • Tenormin (atenolol)
  • Lopressor (metoprolol)
  • Corgard (nadolol)


After any of that management, it's possible for the hyperthyroidism to come back or recurrence. Although, surgical excision of complete or partial thyroid gland can correct the condition permanently. 

It may result in hypothyroidism because few or no cells are left to produce hormones, so replacement of thyroid hormone will be essential for the rest of your life if you go for a thyroid gland excision.

Although it's normally considered safe, surgery always carries risks. Major risks are rare but can include:


  • Damage to the parathyroid glands, which control calcium levels in your body
  • Damage to the nerves of your vocal cords, which leads to a hoarse voice


Diet for Thyroid Health

To help protect your thyroid health, you should keep away or decrease:


  • Foods that cause inflammation in the body
  • Foods that increase blood sugar levels
  • Unhealthy fatty acids
  • Table salt
  • Sweets
  • Caffeine
  • Alcohol
  • Goitrogens (foods that cause slow down your thyroid gland function and promote goitre), including broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, peanuts, strawberries, and peaches.


“He who has health has hope; and he who has hope has everything.” – Thomas Carlyle.

Let’s amalgamate with “Project Global Cure” and create a calm mind with a fit body, these precious things cannot be bought, it has to be earned.