Medical Awareness >>   Nutrition



Food is the source of energy and nutrients for a person to be healthy. Nutrients incorporate carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats, minerals, and water. The key to healthy eating is not hard; one can:

  • Eat various foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, and low-fat dairy items.
  • Drink more water
  • Salt, sugar, alcohol, saturated fat, and trans fat should be limited in the diet.


To determine whether people are consuming a proper amount of nutrients, eating habits and diet, a physical examination to assess the composition and functioning of the body is required.

  • Body Mass Index is calculated with the help of height and weight measures. Maintaining an appropriate weight for one’s height is necessary for health and well being. 
  • Body composition, including the percentage of body fat, is sometimes estimated by measuring skinfold thickness or other analyses. 
  • Many nutrients levels can sometimes be estimated in blood and in tissues. 
  • Another important consideration is the overall body composition - how much of the body is fat and muscle. 
  • Body composition can also be estimated by measuring fat under the skin (skinfold thickness). 

There are many other methods to determine the nutrients composition in the body.

Components of Diet

Generally, nutrients are divided into two classes:

  • Macronutrients: Required every day in large quantities. They incorporate proteins, fats, carbohydrates, certain minerals, and water.
  • Micronutrients: Required every day in small quantities. They incorporate vitamins and certain minerals that enable the body to use macronutrients. 

Water is required in some quantities for the calories of energy exhausted in a day. The requirement for water can be met by the water naturally present in many foods, by drinking fruit or vegetable juices and water as well. 

Foods absorbed in our everyday diet contain lakhs of substances. But only a few are classified as nutrients, and a few lesser ones are classified as essential nutrients like:

  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Certain amino acids (protein components)
  • Certain fatty acids (fat components)

Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized by the body and must be absorbed via diet.

Foods contain many other useful components, including fibre. Foods also contain additives that improve foods production, processing, storage, and packaging.

Fact Sheet

PGC Resolution: Providing information and guidelines that can help our country address all forms of malnutrition to support the health and well-being of all.