Medical Awareness >>   Tuberculosis



TB is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, primarily affecting the lungs. TB is contagious; it spreads through the air by cough, sneeze or spit. 

Though it is preventable and curable, millions of people die from TB every year.

TB is the principal cause of death for HIV affected people and a significant contributor to antimicrobial resistance.

It is estimated that about one-quarter of the world’s population is infected by TB bacteria. Significantly less of these people will fall ill with active TB disease, and the rest who have TB but are not sick, cannot spread the disease. TB is curable using antibiotics.


General signs of TB involve:

  • Prolonged cough
  • Chest pain
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Night sweats

Often, these symptoms are mild for a long time, leading to delays in seeking care and an increased risk of spreading the infection to others.

In TB infection, an individual is infected with TB bacteria that are inactive in the body, and this can grow into TB disease if their immune system declines. Individuals with TB infection do not show any symptoms of TB. Screening with an optional skin or blood test is required to identify TB infection.


TB disease is curable, and it is treated by a standard four antibiotics. In some cases, when TB bacteria do not respond to the standard drugs, it means that the patient has drug-resistant TB. Treatment for drug-resistant TB takes a long time and is more complex. 

If the treatment is not completed correctly, the disease can become drug-resistant and can spread.

In the case of TB infection, a preventive treatment can be given to prevent the onset of the disease. This treatment uses the same drugs for a shorter time. 

Recent treatment options have shortened the duration of treatment.

Fact Sheet:

Numbers: The estimated TB cases were 2,640,000 in 2019, and an approximated 9,500 HIV positive people died due to TB disease. Around 436,000 HIV negative people died.

PGC Resolution: To prevent and eradicate tuberculosis by advancing the diagnosis and treatments procedure.